My Early New Mexican Ancestors

New Mexico's early Spanish settlers face a long and difficult journey along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. The most difficult part of the trail lies between what was later to become Fort Craig and Las Cruces. The Jornada del Muerte, or Journey of the Dead, shortened the long trek, yet it was an arid land with scarce vegetation. The Apache who lived nearby often raided the caravans. Many lost their lives on this harsh stretch of the Camino.

The first Spanish settlers came to New México with Juan de Oñate in 1598. After crossing the Jornada, these settlers had the good fortune to arrive at the Piros Pueblo near present day Socorro. The name Socorro remains today in remembrance of the much-needed help the Piros People gave to the settlers after this difficult crossing.

Some of Oñate's setters came as soldiers, while others came as families beginning the great adventure of a new life in a new land. They were promised titles of honor, riches, land and adventure. Some of them gave up and returned to México once they realized that riches were not to be found. Enough of them stayed, and are some of the shared ancestors of many Hispano New Mexicans.

The Spanish first settled near the San Juan Pueblo. Earlier explorers had told of the generous and kind nature of the San Juan people, and Oñate knew his colony would need their help. Their second settlement, across the river from San Juan, was named San Gabriel. New Mexico's capital city, Santa Fé, was settled shortly after.

Those who came with Oñate's first Spanish Settlement

  Asencio de Archuleta was born in Eibar, Guipuzcoa, España. He was 26 when he came to New México. Shortly after he arrived, he married Ana Pérez de Bustillo in San Gabriel.

  Juan Pérez de Bustillo , his wife, María de la Cruz, and their daughters. Yumar Pérez de Bustillo, Catalina Pérez de Bustillo, Beatrice Pérez de Bustillo, Ana Pérez de Bustillo all born in México City (Cuidad de México) in New Spain (Nueva España)

  Juan de Victoria Carvajal was born in Ayotepel, Nueva España. He came to New México with his two sons, and later married Isabel Holguín, the daughter of Juan López Olguín.

  Juan de la Cruz Catalán originally from Barcelona, Catalán, España. His wife,

  Diego Blandín Gonzales came to New México as a soldier with Juan de Oñate in 1598. He was the father of Sebastián Gonzales who came to New México shortly after his father.

  Juan Griego from Candia, Greece (Crete) along with his wife, Pascuala Bernal, an Aztec woman from the Valle de México.

  Juan Durán, a native of the Valley of Toluca, was the husband of Catalina Bernal, daughter of Juan Griego and Pascuala Bernal. Juan Durán was 29 years and when he came to New Mexico with Don Juan de Oñate in 1598.

  Hernando de Hinojos originally from Cartaya, Condado de Niebla, Andalusia, España. He married Betriz de Bustillo Pérez in New México.

  Juan Luján was born in La Palma in the Canary Island and came to New México at the age of 27. He came to New México with Francisca Jiménez, a Native American from New Spain.

  Juan López de Ocanto was twenty-five and a native of México City when he came to New México with Oñate.

  Gerónimo Márquez originally came from San Lucarde, Barrameda, España. He traveled into New México with his his sons,including, Francisco and Gerónimo, both born in España; a daughter María de La Vega Márquez, who was born in Nueva España; and their unidentified mother.

  Alonso Martín Barba originally from Sombrerete, Nueva Galicia, Nueva España.

  Juan de Pedraza originally from Cartaya, Condado de Niebla, Andalusia, España

  Bartolomé Romero - Corral de Almaguer, España. His son, Matías Romero, was born on the journey to New México from New Spain (Nueva España). His wife was Lucia López Robledo

  Pedro Robledo and his wife Catalina López both from from Maqueda, España and his children Fransica, Alonso Diego. Pedro, Francisco Robledo de Avalos, Francisca & Lucia. Pedro died on the journey to New México, leaving his widow and children behind to settle New México.

  Pedro Sánchez de Monroy and his daughter Juana Sánchez de Monroy were among the original settlers who arrived with Oñate

  Hernan Martín Serrano, Captain - from Zacatecas, Nueva España he came with his wife Juana Rodríguez

  Blas de Valencia originally from Sevilla, España. Blas Valencia came to New Mexico with Don Juan de Oñate in 1598 at the age of 26 years. He was a soldier with a round face and a light beard. He appears later in Governor Zevallo's escort to Santa Fe in 1613. He is most likely the father of Franciso de Valencia from whom Valencia and Valencia County recieved their names.

  Alonso Varela and his brother Pedro Varela originally from Santiago de Compostela, España. Both came unmarried to New México. Alanso was the founder of the Varela Jaramillo family and Pedro began the Varela de Losada family in New México. Alonso married Catalin Pérez de Bustillos in New México.

  Francisco Vásquez originally from Cartaya, Andalucia, España

Those who came with the Second Wave of settlers and arrived at San Gabriel on December 24, 1600

Within the first year of settlement, Oñate made a request of the Viceroy of Nueva España for additional reinforcements in. Those recruited for this "second wave" of settlement included soldiers, families, women, children and servants. They began their journey north along the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro by late September 1600. They arrived at San Gabriel on Christmas Eve of 1600. Within a year, many of these settlers also deserted the colony. Again, New México's Hispano ancestors stayed to face the challenge of living in a difficult, yet beautiful, land in Nueva México.

  Juan Ruíz de Cáceres came to New México in 1600 He came to the new world from La Laguna, Tenerife, Isla de la Palma, Islas Cararias

  Cristóbal Baca, of Ciudád de Méjico, Nueva España, came to NM 1600 with wife Ana Ortiz and children Antonio Ortiz Baca, Isabel Baca de Bohórquez, & Alonso Ortiz Baca. The entire family was born in Ciudád de Méjico, Nueva Espána.

  Juan López Olguín originally from Fuente Ovejuna, Cordova, España came to New México as a soldier in 1600 with his wife, Catalina de Villanueva, Native American, originally from Tepeacu, Nueva España.

  Juan López de Villasana originally from Fuente Ovejuna, Cordova, España and the father of Juan López Holguín, came to New México as a soldier in 1600.

  Bartolomé de Montoya, originally from Cantillana, Castilla, España,came to San Gabriel with his wife María de Zamora, sons Francisco, Diego, and José and daughters Lucia and Petonia. His wife and children were all from Tezcoco, Cuidád, Méjico, Nueva España.

  Don Pedro Durán y Cháves, native of Valverde de Llerena, Extremadura, Spain, is the the progenitor of the name Chaves and Chávez in New México.

  Alvaro Garcia Holgado married Juana de los Reyes in New México. They had 3 sons and a daughter. This family name was shortened to Garcia through the decades of the 1600s.

  Juan de Herrera, native of México City, Nueva Espana married Ana Lopez del Castillo, a native of New México

  Juan Rodríguez Bellido came to New México as a soldier in 1600. He was originally from Xilbraleón in Castilla, España.

Others that shortly followed

  Simón de Abendaño was born in Ciudád de Rodrígo on the border of Portugal and Spain and emigrated to the New World and then to New México during the 1600s or 1610s.

  Francisco de Anaya Almazán came to New México sometime before 1626, He was born Ciudad de Méjico, Nueva España. He married Juana López de Villafuerte in Santa Fé in 1626. Despite the tradegy that his second son, and namesake, suffered during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, Francisco II returned to New Mexico with Diego de Vargas in 1693.

  Juan Fresco moved from Flanders (Belgium)to Santa Fé in 1617. He came with a trade caravan from New Spain (Nueva España).

  Sebastián Gonzales, originally from Coimbra, Portugal, arrived in New México in 1617. He married Isabel Bernal around 1619 in Santa Fé. Isabel Bernal was born in San Gabriel, Nuevo Méjico. His brother, Domingo González was also from Coimbra, Portugal and was in the Americas by 1600 and New Mexico by 1617.

  Francisco López, originally from Jerez, Cádiz, España, arrived early in New México, but the only know date for him is 1626 when he died in New México. His wife, María de Villafuente probably came with him. She was from Quatitlan, Nueva España.

  Pedro Lucero de Godoy was born in Ciudád de Méjico, Nueva Espána (México City), and came to New México in 1617 at the age of 17 years old. He later married Petronila de Zamora who came to New México as an infant with her parents.

  Francisco de Ribera - In 1636, Captain Pedro Lucero de Godoy testified that he had know Ribera for twenty-one years, suggesting the possibility of the two coming to New Mexico together.

  Francisco de Madrid came to New México in 1603, and brought 10 new soldiers and four friars along with him.

  José de Padilla came into New Mexico between 1660-1668. He married María López, the daughter of Francisco Valencia and María López Milán, in New México.

  Juan Fernández de Tapia immigrated to San Gabriel, Nuevo Méjico before 1607. He married Francisca López Robledo who had come to New México with her family.

  Sebastian Rodríguez de Salazar, originally from Cartaya, Condado de Niebla, Andalusia, España, he first went to Nueva España,and then moved to Santa Fé, New México in 1619.

  Francisco de Salazar Hachero first shows up in New México as a soldier escort in 1623

  Diego de Trujillo came to New México before 1633. He was born in México City.

  Matías López del Castillo came into New México as a soldier-escort of 1628. He was originally from Cabra, Cordova, España

  Juan de Mondragón was a Regent of Santa Fe in 1637.

  Nicolas de Aguilar, a native of Yurirapundara, Michoacán in Nueva España was in New Mexico before 1660, and was married to Catalina de Márquez.

  Francisco de Ortega, a native of Zacatecas, was fifty-three year-old when he was a captain and residing in the Sandia district in 1667.

  Mateo de Sandoval y Manzanares was in New México sometime before 1636 since that is the date of a record that described his estancia located near the Pueblo of San Felipe. He was also called a mulatto libre suggesting that at one time he had been a slave.

  Alonso Rodríguez was in New Mexico by 1642

  Francisco López de Aragon among the soldiers escorting the wagon-train from Mexico City in 1640 and 1646. He married a native New Mexican, Ana Ortiz Baca.

  Fray Francisco Muños came to New Mexico around 1660. The children he fathered with Doña Juana López Aragón took his mother's name Sánches de Iñigo.

    Alonso García (de Noriega) first came to New Mexico around 1650, and later returned to New Mexico in 1693 along with Diego de Vargas.

  Ambrosio Sáez, native of El Valle de San Bartolomé, Nueva Vizcaya, Nuevo España & whose grandfather and grandmother, Capitán Pedro Sanches de Chávez and María Rodríquez from Almedovar del Campo, España, were among the earliest colonists of the Santa Bárbara district of Nueva España, was in New Mexico before 1665.

  Antonio Jorge de Vera was a resident of the Río Abajo in 1661. His father, Manuel Jorge Álvarez had come to the Americas from Tangier, North Africa and was also in New Mexico 1661.

  Pedro de Leyva, originally from El Valle de San Bartolomé, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva España, first appears in New Mexico in 1661.

  José and Antonio Gallegos were brothers who came to New México sometime prior to the Pueblo Revolt.

  José Téllez Girón was living near San Felipe and Cochiti in the 1660s, and most likely returned to New México with Diego de Vargas in 1693.

    José de Padilla Villasenor lived in New Mexico for more than 12 years before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. He stayed in the present day region of El Paso/Ciudad Juarez, but some of his sons returned with Don Diego de Vargas, possibly in 1692

  Juan Antonio Montaño de Sotomayor came to New Mexico as a convict shortly before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.

Oñate lead a party into Kansas to search for the legendary Gran Quivara. Upon his return, he found that 400 colonists had deserted San Gabriel, the Spanish colony begun by the Oñate party. Those who remained were considered loyalists, and stayed on to raise their families in New Mexico.

Those who came to New México between 1692 and 1696

The years of 1610-1680 are called the Spanish Mission period of New México History. During this time, the Franciscan priests came to convert the Pueblo Peoples to Christianity. Often there was conflict between the priests and the settlers over the pueblos.

For the Pueblo Peoples of New México, this was a time of great hardship. They were required to work for the Spanish under the encomienda system, plus obey the Franciscan priests. The Spanish unintentionally brought to New México the European diseases that had greatly diminished the Mexican Native American population. There was a prolonged drought during the mid 1600s that lead to the death of many Pueblo People.

The Spanish felt it was important to bring Christianity to the Pueblos The Pueblo people seemed ready to adapt to the new religion, but they indented to keep the religion of their own ancestors. Their religion was tied to the land, a land that was difficult to survive. For generations the Pueblo People used their religion to find a balance and harmony with their environment. Now it seemed that the balance at been upset, and the Pueblo People revolted against their Spanish rulers who had tried to eradicate the Pueblo Religion.

Many Hispano New Mexicans, especially in the northern half of New México, called the Rio Arriba, lost their lives during the Revolt of 1680. Fewer died south of Santa Fé in the Rio Abajo. The Pueblo of Isleta had not joined the revolt, and harbored the Hispano people of the Rio Abajo. The survivors of the Revolt moved to El Paso del Norte, now El Paso, Texas. Some of the Isleta people joined the Spanish in El Paso del Norte and formed a second Isleta Pueblo, Isleta del Sur, near present day El Paso.

The Spanish made attempts to return to New México. Finally in 1692 and 1693, Diego de Vargas brought new settlers back to New México in the "third and fourth wave" of settlement. They were descendents of the earlier settlers, and they were new recruits from México. This was not a "Peaceful Reconquest" of New México. Some Pueblos rebelled. By 1696, the Spanish again controlled the lands along the Rio Grande.

There was no more encomiendas, no more destruction of pueblo religion, and no more wars between the Pueblos and Spanish. Instead there was a great amount of cultural sharing. There were poor settlers who came to work the land, much as the Pueblo Peoples had done for centuries. They were people tied to the Land of New Mexico, just as the Pueblo People had been for generations. There were marriages between the Spanish and the Pueblo Peoples. Hispano New Mexicans have carried on the Native heritage and culture of México and New México Native Americans from the time of the first Spanish settlers.

Those whose families first came to New México between 1692 and 1696

This section is still under construction.

  Ygnacio Aragón came with his family into New Mexico in 1693. He and his wife, Sebastiana Ortiz we both born in México City. The many Aragón families of the Rio Abajo stem from Ygnacio Aragón's family.

  Bernardino Fernández and his two brothers, Alonso Fernández and Martín Fernández Valerio, all from, Sombrerete, Nueva España, arrived in New Mexico in 1693 along with Diego de Vargas.

  José García Jurado and his son Rámon García Jurado came to New Mexico with Diego de Vargas in 1693. Rámon later married Juana Antonia de Espindola, who was also a newcomer to New México.

  Juana Antonia de Espindola's parents died right before they set out to New México, but Juan Antonino, age eight, and her sisters, María Magdalena, ten, and Catalina, thirteen, continued the journey into New México with the colonist of 1693.

  Petronila de la Cueva and her husband Juan de Góngora signed up in México City to go to New México along with the other settlers. Juan died before he could make the journey, but Petronila too her children, Cristóbal, María Gertrudis, Francisca, Gregoria and Juan José.

  José Vásquez de Lara came to New México as a soldier of the reconquest in 1692 & 1693.

  Juan Lorenzo de Medina, at age twenty, and his wife Antonia Sedanao, at age fourteen, were among the Reconquest colonists of 1693. Both were natives of Nueva España.

  Nicolas Nino Ladron de Guevara Ortiz, Sebastiana's father, was one of the settlers recruited from Zacatecas to resettle New México in 1693. He came with his wife, Doña Mariana Coronado and their children, including a son also named Nicolas.

  Francisco Palomino Rendon was a soldier of the Reconquest from Puerto de Santa María, España. He married Juana Montoya, a native New Mexican, immediately upon arriving outside of Santa Fé

  Baltasar Francisco de la Peña, a native of Zacatecas, came to New Mexico as a soldier with Diego de Vargas in 1694.

  José de Quintana came to New México around 1693, possibly when his brother came with his family.

  Salvador Matias de Ribera was born in Santa Maria in Spain, and was 20 years old in 1695. He was recruited at Zacatecas by Juan Paez Hurtado. He arrrived in Santa Fe in 1695 with his wife and faimily. Her name was Juana de Sosa Canela.

  Pedro de Cedillo Rico de Rojas brought the name Sedillo into New Mexico when he came as a soldier with Diego de Vargas.

  Bernardino de Sena y Valle, originally from México City, accompanied his adopted parents to New Mexico where they settled in Santa Fé in June 1694.

  Antonio de Silva, his wife Gregoria Ruiz, along with their daughter Gertrudis were recruited in México City to settle New México.

  Cristóbal de Tafoya Altamirano came to New Mexico after the reconquest in 1695, with his brother Juan. Another brother, Antonio, also came to settle in New Mexico.

  Manuel Vallejos González came to New Mexico in 1693, and is the progenitor of the Vallejos family of New Mexico.

  Juan Montes Vigil, origin ally from Zacatecas, Nueva España, first came to New México in 1695 along with his wife, María Jiménez de Ancizo. Juan and Maria came to start a new life in the frontier after a difficult past in Nueva España. Many New Mexicans with the name Vigil descend from Juan Montes Vigil.

My Most Recent Ancestors to Arrive in New México

  Felipe Santiago de Luera was born about 1754 in Rancho de las Cuevas, Valle de San Bartolomé, Nueva España. He came to New México in 1779 when he enlisted as a soldier in the Spanish Army. His son, José Martín married Dolores Moya, and they had a daughter, and my great great grandmother, named Benigna who went by the names of Benigna Martínez and Benigna Martín. Benigna was the second wife of my great great grandfather, Ramón López.

  Tomás Antonio Becerra's name first appears in New Mexico when he married María da la luz Archuleta in Taos in 1815. In his marriage records and the Baptismal records of his children, his parents are listed as Antonio Becerra and Nicolasa Obando. His parents may be the Antonio Becerra & Nicolasa Obando who were married on 30 Jan 1770 in Santiago, Nopalucán, Puebla, Nuevo España.

  Eleanor Blair was born in Ashland, Nebraska and came to New Mexico in 1945 with my father, Carlos López. She met my father in Needles California. My father was a tank commander, and his division was training to be sent to be sent overseas during WWII.

After the war, my father brought my mother to El Rito, New Mexico. Arriving in Northern New Mexico during the 1940s was like arriving in another country. My mother first fell in love with my father, and then she fell in love with the New Mexico that was so much a part of who my father was.

Origins of New México Families ~ A Genealogy of the Spanish Colonial Period,
Revised Edition
Fray Angélico Chávez,
Museum of New México Press
P.O. Box 2087
Santa Fé, NM 87504
Revised Edition 1992

The Royal Road: El Camino Real from México City to Santa Fé
Preston, Christine & Douglas and Esquibel, Jose Antonio
Albuquerque, NM
University of New México Press

New México's First Colonists,The 1597-1600 Enclistments Under Juan Oñate, Adelante & Governado
David H.Snow
March 1998
Hispanic Genealogical Research Center of New México

A History of New México
Calvin A. Roberts and Susan A. Roberts
Albuquerque, NM
University of New México Press

My own list of
New Méxican Settlers ~ 1598-1680
taken from Origins of New México Families

Places my New Mexican Ancestors came from in Europe & North America

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My New Mexico Roots
© Nancy López