Juan de Victoria Carvajal Captain
- Born: 1560, Yautepeque, Marquesaso del Valle, Nueva España 498
- Marriage: Isabel Holguín
- Died: Abt 1635, Nuevo Méjico, Nueva España about age 75
Noted events in his life were:
• Dates & Events. 252
Juan de Vitoria Carvajal came to New México under Oñate in 1598. He was an Alférez (lieutenant), thirty-six years old, the son of Juan de Carvajal, and native of Ayotepel in the Marquisate of the Valley of México. He was described as having a medium stature and a chestnut beard.
Oñate sent him back to New Spain to bring new reinforcements in 1600. At this time he was captain, and described as he had before, but with the addition that he was well-featured and had a mark on the right side of his face above the left eye.
Once he returned, he was a member of Oñate's war council. As Alcalde Ordinario in 1614, he was accused of illegally assuming authority in ordering the execution of a Native American assassin while Governor Peralta was held prisoner by the Franciscan Missionaries.
As "Standardbear" for the Holy Office, he accompanied Father Perea, head of the Catholic church in New México at the time, in a memorable procession which left Santa Fé to meet the incoming Governor, Don Francisco Nieto de Silva.
Few Carvajal people returned with the Reconquest, but their daughter's ancestors did. The Carvajal individuals who first came to the New World were above the average in estate. The genealogy of Luís María de Carvajal in New Spain was linked with that of Oñate. Among the Cortés Conquistadores was an Antonio de Carvajal, a native of Zamora, who may have been the grandfather of Juan de Victoria Carvajal.
~The Origins of New México Families, p. 14-16
• Family Background. 498
Since the Juan de Carvajal, who accompanied Gaspar Castaño de Sosa on his failed colonization in New México in 1590, had the exact same birth date as Juan Victoria de Caraval, a member of the Oñate settlement of 1598, it can be concluded that they are one and the same people. Juan de Carvajal was associated with Luis de Carvajal, Governor of Nuevo León, and very likely was Luis's first cousin. Governor Luis de Carvajal was a converso, and most likely Juan Victoria de Caraval was also a converso.
Many conversos (New Christians, referring to people with Jewish ancestry whose ancestors converted to Christianity rather than being expelled from Spain) left Spain and Portugal for New Spain not only for material gain, but New Spain was a potential haven for crypto-Jews to practice their faith. In New Spain, the Office of the Inquisition not very concerned with conversos backsliding into their old beliefs as they were with "breaches of Catholic orthodoxy, such as witchcraft, bigamy, blasphemy, and the solicitation of women by priests." There are two notable periods in New Spain when the Inquisition turned their attention on Conversos. The first of these periods lasted from 1589-1601.
The nephew of Governor Luis de Carvajal, also named Luis de Carvajal, began to encourage his fellow conversos to embrace their old religion. This prompted the Office of the Inquisition to begin a campaign against conversos. The Carvajal family suffered the most, with many members of the family losing their estates and status. Luis, the younger Carvajal, was burned at the stake along with a few other conversos.
This first incidence of persecution of conversos was the same time as the colonization attempt of Castaño de Sosa and the successful colonization of New México by Oñate. The timing of events can lead one to speculate that the Castaño de Soso's illegal (he did not have a grant or permission to travel into New México) expedition for settlement further north beyond the frontier of New Spain was initiated by Governor Carvajal. Add to this the fact that Castaño de Sosa had an ancestry of conversos, and was a close associate of Governor Carvajal.
~To the End of the Earth, pp. 72-96
• Castaño de Sosa Expedition, 1590. 498
Juan de Carvajal was thirty years old when he joined the Castaño de Sosa expedition.
• Oñate Expedition, 1598. 498
A veteran of the Castaño de Sosa expedition, Juan de Carvajal was to return to New México with Juan de Oñate. He is listed as a military officer in both Ulloa's and Salazar's muster rolls. He is described as being of medium stature and with a chestnut- colored beard. List among the items that Juan de Carvajal brought with him to New México are a set of armor, a harquebus, four saddles, fifteen horses and a leather shield as well as one male servant.
~ To the End of the Earth, p. 111
Oñate realized that for the New México settlement to survive, they would need reinforcements. He sent some of his most loyal officers, including Juan de Carvajal, to México City for new colonists. Some of these leaders stayed in México City, Juan de Carvajal remained loyal to Oñate. He made his third journey into New México in 1600 with seventy -two men, women and children. From this time on, New México becomes his home.
~To the End of the Earth, p. 118
Juan married Isabel Holguín, daughter of Juan López Olguín Villasaña and Catalina de Villanueva. (Isabel Holguín was born about 1582 252 and died after 1626 in Santa Fé, Santa Fé, Nuevo Méjico, Nueva España 252.)